Joe Biden once said Russia selling cryogenic engine for space rocket to India was ‘dangerous’

 

Joe Biden & Space Rocket

With both US President Donald Trump and his Democratic rival, Joe Biden, in the final lap of campaigning for next month’s election, the respective campaigns are reaching out to all ethnic groups. Much attention has been focussed on the Indian-American community, with both candidates touting their credentials with ‘desis’. 

A key element of their outreach to the Indian-American community has been their respective policy positions and past record with India. Joe Biden has already faced some criticism over controversial statements on Jammu and Kashmir and therefore the Citizenship (Amendment) Act. 

On Tuesday, BJP MP Subramanian Swamy shared a piece of writing from The Frustrated Indian on Joe Biden blocking the sale of Russian cryogenic engine technology to India in 1992. 

Background 

India signed a contract worth Rs 235 crore with Glavkosmos, the Soviet Union’s space agency, in January 1991 to shop for seven cryogenic engines, along side technology transfer for these systems, for the Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV) project. 

In a cryogenic engine, both the fuel and oxidiser are in liquid form and stored at very-low temperatures. They are far more efficient and supply more thrust for each kilogram of propellant they burn compared with “solid and earth-storable liquid propellant rocket stages”, consistent with ISRO. This makes them optimal to power rockets carrying heavy payloads, like satellites weighing in more than two tonnes.

“However, cryogenic stage is technically a really complex system compared to solid or earth-storable liquid propellant stages thanks to its use of propellants at extremely low temperatures and therefore the associated thermal and structural problems,” ISRO’s webpage on cryogenic engines explains. 

The decision to choose an imported solution was made given the fear that it might take about 15 years to develop an indigenously developed cryogenic engine. 

A French offer to sell cryogenic engines was rejected given the exorbitant cost of about Rs 1,000 crore. 

Politics behind cryogenics engine 

The collapse of the Soviet Union in December 1991 and therefore the financial woes that accompanied the ‘rebirth’ of Russia put Moscow at the mercy of Western powers. The US opposed the sale of cryogenic engine technology on the grounds it violated the 1987 Missile Technology Control Regime (MTCR). However, experts contended cryogenic engines meant for space rockets have little utility for ballistic missiles as the fuelling of such space rockets takes a period of several days. Such a procedure would have little relevance for military use as missiles are intended to be deployable at short notice. 

In May 1992, the Senate Foreign Relations Committee added conditions to an aid deal, proposed by then US president George H.W. Bush, that would transfer $24 billion to Russia. The committee voted to dam the Russia aid deal if Moscow decided to travel ahead with the cryogenic engine contract with India. 

An amendment was moved by member , Joe Biden, then the senator from Delaware that banned US aid to any former Soviet republic that transferred missile, nuclear or chemical weapons technology abroad. 

The l. a. Times reported on May 14, 1992, that Biden described the sale of cryogenic technology to India as “dangerous”. “I am confident that the Russian leaders will recognise the wisdom of stopping this sale once they see the danger of losing their economic aid… this is often often no minor sale; this is dangerous,” Biden was quoted as saying by L. A. Times

The US also imposed sanctions on ISRO and Glavkosmos. 

In 1993, Russian president Boris Yeltsin, reached a ‘compromise’ with new US president Clinton on the cryogenic engine affect India. Russia decided to sell India the seven cryogenic engines, but wouldn't transfer technology for them. 

In July 1993, India announced it might develop its own cryogenic engines. The initial allow this project was Rs 280 crore. the trail to develop a cryogenic engine was tough for ISRO. the primary launch of a GSLV with a cryogenic engine failed in 2010. In January 2014, the primary GSLV powered by an indigenous cryogenic engine launched successfully and therefore the rest, as they assert , is history.
Source- The Week

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